Chemistry Articles

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Electrochemical Series

The electrochemical series or the activity series is the arrangement of various electrodes in the increasing order of their standard reduction potential. The reduction potential values are seen to increase from negative to zero and positive real numbers. When arranged linearly, it would look like a number line with the positive numbers on the right side of zero and the negative numbers on the left side of zero.

What is an Electrode Potential?

An electrode when in contact with an electrolyte solution of the similar ionic nature (Example, Cu electrode in CuSO4 solution, Zn electrode in ZnSO4 solution) tends to either undergo Oxidation (loss of electrons) or reduction (gain of electrons).

Due to this oxidation or reduction, there develops a charge separation between the metal electrode and its ions in the solution creating a potential difference.

Definition- Markownikoff’s/ Markovnikov’s Rule

Markovnikov’s rule was proposed by Russian chemist Vladimir Markovnikov in the year 1869. It is the condition that applies to the unsymmetrical alkene or alkyne predicting the regiochemistry of the addition of hydrogen halide to give alkyl halide.

As per the Markovnikov rule, ‘For an unsymmetrical alkene or alkyne, when treated with hydrogen halide HX, the negative part of the reagent attaches to carbon having less number of hydrogen across the double bond giving alkyl halide.’

Why Benzoic acid (benzene carboxylic acid) will not undergo Friedel-Craft Reaction?

A type of electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction to introduce an acyl group (R-C=O) in the aromatic ring resulting in aryl ketones. The reacting species are usually but not always -benzene (substituted or unsubstituted), an acyl halide and a Lewis Acid catalyst. In short, it can be stated as the acylation of the aromatic rings by the Friedel-Craft reaction method.

What are s-block elements?

If all the elements were to create a gated community for themselves; they would build four apartment blocks namely, the s-block, p-block, d-block and the f-block. The elements having similar property would be grouped together occupying one block and this behavior is based on the orbital the last electron chooses to enter.


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