HALOALKANES AND HALOARENES

Anti-Markovnikov's Rule (Addition of HBr to an unsymmetrical alkene/alkyne)

Few reagents such as Hydrogen Halides (HX), Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4), Alcohols (R-OH), Water (H2O) follow Markovnikov's Rule for the addition across the double bond of an alkene. But HBr in the presence of a peroxide shows a behavior opposite to the Markovnikov's rule, thereby termed as The Anti-Markovnikov's Rule. It was studied extensively by Morris Kharash was also known as the Kharasch effect or the Peroxide Effect. This behavior is shown only by HBr and not HF, HCl, HI even in the presence of the peroxide. In the absence of the peroxide, HBr adds as per the Markovnikov's Rule. 

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