Chemistry Articles

Types of Equivalent Hydrogens (structurally and chemically similar)

The Hydrogens attached to a Carbon atom are said to be equivalent if they are in a same chemical environment. Same chemical environment means that under a reaction condition, these hydrogens would lose their identities of being attached to separate Carbons and behave like an identical set.

sp3 hybridization of Carbon

Pre-requisite Reading- Valency of Elements, Modern Electronic configuration, Atomic orbitals, Concept of Hybridization 
sp3 hybridization of Carbon

What are haloalkanes and haloarenes? How can they be classified?

A Haloalkane is the halogen derivative of an alkane obtained by the replacement of one or more hydrogen atom. For example, when one hydrogen of an alkane, methane is replaced with a halogen, say chlorine, the haloalkane obtained is called as the chloromethane.

Difference Between Phenol, Phenyl, Benzene, Benzyl, and Aryl

The Benzene is a planar, six-membered cyclic ring structure with alternating double bonds that are responsible for its aromaticity. The Benzene is a simplest aromatic hydrocarbon made up of only carbon and hydrogen without any other substituents. The molecular formula of Benzene is C6H6.  

Lattice Points in a Unit Cell- Solid State Chemistry

Lattice points are the positions an atom, ion or a molecule can occupy in a crystal giving it its shape and characteristics. If any of these particles go missing or are not in a correctly ordered arrangement, it can introduce a defect in the crystal. Lattice points are essentially a crystalline framework.

Anti-Markovnikov's Rule (Addition of HBr to an unsymmetrical alkene/alkyne)

Few reagents such as Hydrogen Halides (HX), Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4), Alcohols (R-OH), Water (H2O) follow Markovnikov's Rule for the addition across the double bond of an alkene. But HBr in the presence of a peroxide shows a behavior opposite to the Markovnikov's rule, thereby termed as The Anti-Markovnikov's Rule. It was studied extensively by Morris Kharash was also known as the Kharasch effect or the Peroxide Effect. This behavior is shown only by HBr and not HF, HCl, HI even in the presence of the peroxide. In the absence of the peroxide, HBr adds as per the Markovnikov's Rule. 

Classification of Drugs- Chemistry in Everyday Life

Drugs are small molecular weight compounds (<500) that in moderate doses show a therapeutic (beneficial) effect and in high doses show harmful effects. They interact with the macromolecular targets (carbohydrates, proteins, fats and nucleic acid) to produce a biological response.


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