Difference Between Phenol, Phenyl, Benzene, Benzyl, and Aryl

The Benzene is a planar, six-membered cyclic ring structure with alternating double bonds that are responsible for its aromaticity. The Benzene is a simplest aromatic hydrocarbon made up of only carbon and hydrogen without any other substituents. The molecular formula of Benzene is C6H6.  
 
On removal of one hydrogen of the benzene, a phenyl (Ph-) group is obtained that is written as C6H5-. If the lost hydrogen is replaced with Chloro, it becomes phenyl chloride (or chlorobenzene). On using phenyl as a side chain for propane, we get 1-phenylpropane. Replacement of two hydrogens of methane with phenyl group gives diphenylmethane and so on. 
difference between phenyl and benzene
 
But when one hydrogen of the benzene ring is replaced with a hydroxy functional group, the molecule obtained is a combination of phenyl and alcohol called as the phenol. In other words, a phenol is the hydroxy derivative of benzene having the molecular formula C6H5-OH. 
 
Adding a one carbon methylene (-CH2-) linker to the phenyl, C6H5-CH2- or Ph-CH2- gives a benzyl group (Bn). 
 
    Bn= C6H5-CH2- or Ph-CH2-
 
The carbon linker can be monosubstituted (C6H5-CHR-) or disubstituted (C6H5-CR2-). If the functional group present at the end of the alkyl chain is an amine, the molecule is called benzylamine (Bn-NH2). Other examples of different functional groups are benzyl alcohol (Bn-OH), benzyl bromide (Bn-Br), benzyl methyl ether (Bn-O-CH3), etc.
difference between benzene and benzyl
 
So far all the molecules encountered were the benzene derivatives. But the presence of an aromatic ring in a molecule is, in general, is written as an Ar-. The aromatic ring can be pure benzene, substituted benzene, naphthalene, heteroaromatic ring (thienyl, indolyl), etc. Few examples of aryl iodides are-
difference between aryl and benzene and phenyl
 
 
In summary, do note that both phenol and benzene are whole complete structures whereas aryl, phenyl, benzyl are groups or side chain substituents forming just a part of the entire molecule.   
Difference between phenol, phenyl, benzene, benzyl and aryl
 
Shown below are all the groups in one hypothetical structure-
examples of phenyl, phenol, aryl, benzene and benzyl
 
 

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