Glossary List

Definition- Electrochemistry

A branch of chemistry that deals with the interconversion of chemical energy and electrical energy taking place via the redox reactions.  
It studies how a spontaneous redox reaction capable of generating chemical energy converts it into electrical energy. Example, Electrochemical cell. 
Or how the use of electrical energy can bring about a non-spontaneous chemical reaction. Example, Electrolytic cell.
 

Definition- Electrode Potential

Electrode potential 
An electrode in contact with an electrolyte solution of same ionic nature (Example, Cu electrode in CuSO4 solution, Zn electrode in ZnSO4 solution) tends to either undergo oxidation or reduction due to which there develops a charge separation creating a potential difference. 
Definition Electrode Potential
 
The potential difference is called the electrode potential, and when measured under standard condition of 1M electrolyte concentration, 298 K temperature, and 1 bar atmospheric pressure (if gas is involved), it is called standard electrode potential and is represented as Eo
 

Definition- Friedel-Craft Alkylation Reaction

A type of electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction to introduce an alkyl group (-R) in the arene ring giving alkyl arenes. The reacting species are usually but not always- benzene ring (substituted or unsubstituted), an alkyl halide and a Lewis Acid catalyst. In short, it can be stated as the alkylation of the aromatic rings by the Friedel-Craft reaction method.

Fridel Craft alkylation reaction general reaction definition

Definition- Lattice (Chemistry)

A regular, periodic three-dimensional arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules indicating their positions in a crystalline solid.

crystal lattice definition

Definition- Lattice Point

A Lattice point is the position in the unit cell or in a crystal where the probability of finding an atom or an ion is the highest. In other words, the atoms or ions occupy the lattice points in a crystalline solid. 

Lattice Point Crystalline Solid

The lattice positions occupied by the constituent particles are shown as points in the open structure of the unit cell. 

Lattice Point diagrams solid state chemistry

The lattice point may be found to be vacant in certain cases. Example: Point defects. 

Read more about the number of lattice points in a unit cell.

Definition- Markownikoff’s/ Markovnikov’s Rule

Markovnikov’s rule was proposed by Russian chemist Vladimir Markovnikov in the year 1869. It is the condition that applies to the unsymmetrical alkene or alkyne predicting the regiochemistry of the addition of hydrogen halide to give alkyl halide.

As per the Markovnikov rule, ‘For an unsymmetrical alkene or alkyne, when treated with hydrogen halide HX, the negative part of the reagent attaches to carbon having less number of hydrogen across the double bond giving alkyl halide.’

Definition Markovnikov's Rule predicting regiochemistry

Definition- Oxidation (Chemistry)

As per the Classical concept,

Oxidation is Defined as, the addition of Oxygen or any other electronegative element to a substance.

Example,

2Mg(s) + O2(g) → 2MgO (addition of oxygen)

Mg(s) + Cl2(g) → MgCl2(addition of electronegative element, chlorine)

Or

As the removal of Hydrogen or any other electropositive element from a substance.

Example,

2H2S(g) + O2(g) → 2S + 2H2O(l)(removal of hydrogen)

2K4(aq) + H2O2(aq) → 2K3(aq) + 2KOH(aq)(removal of electropositive element, potassium)

 

As per the Electronic Concept,

Oxidation involves the loss of one or more electrons from an atom or an ion. It leads to an increase in positive charge and decrease in negative charge.

Example,

Fe2+ → Fe3+ + e-(increase in positive charge from +2 to +3 for Fe)

2Cl- → Cl2 + 2e-(decrease in negative charge from -1 to 0 for Cl)

Definition- Oxidation Potential

For an electrode in contact with an electrolyte solution having similar ionic nature, if the tendency of the electrode is to lose electrons and undergo oxidation reaction, the electrode is said to have an oxidation potential. Example, Zn electrode dipped in the ZnSO4 electrolyte solution. 

Oxidation Potential half reaction

If the oxidation potential is calculated under the standard condition of 1M electrolyte concentration, 298 K temperature, and 1 bar atmospheric pressure (if gas is involved), it is called standard oxidation potential. The standard oxidation potential can be derived using standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) as the reference electrode. The standard oxidation potential is represented as Eoox.
 

Definition- Reduction (Chemistry)

As per the Classical concept,

Reduction is defined as, the elimination of oxygen or any electronegative element from a substance.

Example,

CuO(s) + H2(g) → Cu(s) + H2O(l)(removal of oxygen)

2FeCl3(aq) + H2(g) → 2FeCl2(aq) + 2HCl(aq)(removal of electronegative element, chlorine)

Or

The addition of Hydrogen or any electropositive element to a substance.

Example,

Br2(g) + H2S(g) → 2HBr(g) + S(s)(addition of hydrogen to Br)

2HgCl2 + SnCl2(aq) → Hg2Cl2(s) + SnCl4(aq)(addition of electropositive element, mercury)

 

As per the Electronic Concept,

Reduction reaction involves gain of one or more electrons by an atom or an ion. It leads to the decrease in positive charge and an increase in negative charge.

Example,

Fe3+ + e-   → Fe2+(decrease in positive charge from +3 to +2 for Fe)

Cl2 + 2e-  → 2Cl-(increase in negative charge from 0 to -1 for Cl)

Definition- Reduction Potential

For an electrode in contact with an electrolyte solution having similar ionic nature, if the tendency of the electrode is to gain electrons and undergo reduction, the electrode is said to have a reduction potential. Example, Ag electrode dipped in the AgCl electrolyte solution.

reduction potential definition

If the reduction potential is calculated under the standard condition of 1M electrolyte concentration, 298 K temperature, and 1 bar atmospheric pressure (if gas is involved), it is called standard reduction potential. The standard reduction potential can be derived using standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) as the reference electrode. The standard reduction potential is represented as Eored.

Pages

    About CurlyArrows | Contact Us

    Copyright © CurlyArrows Education Private Limited   
    Door #2, Alankrita, Panampilly Nagar 10th B Cross Road
    Near South Indian Bank,
    Kochi, Kerala 682036
    Ph: +9170347 84565